Access Control Systems and Their Types
Access control systems are fixed in buildings and office premises to ensure only employees or residents can enter the space. The system will identify the individual, authenticate their data and provide the access key to only verify users. An access control system helps protect the residents, employees, valuable assets and data. The system will help verify who has access, the doors or areas they have access to, the access time or conditions under which they can access the location.
Identifiers Used by the Access Control System:
The access control system allows individuals to enter the premises based on the entry identifiers. Some of the most common access control system verification identifiers are:
- An access card or identity card that is provided by your employer or building owner. The access control system will scan the card and compare it to its internal database to allow a person to enter the space.
- A PIN needs to be entered into the access control system. The system will verify if the entered PIN or password matches the PIN that was set earlier.
- Biometric systems like fingerprints or iris scanners. These systems include an input sensor, output interface and a database. The output display will declare if the live captured data match the one present in the database.
The access control installation can include either one of these identifiers or a combination of two or more. More the identifiers used, better will be the security. However, including many identifiers will increase the system complexity and time consumption when many people are using the access control system.
Types of Access Control Systems:
When you look for an access control system, make sure you understand what each of these types means before the access control installation.
Discretionary Access Control (DAC)–
In a DAC system, the business or building owner is responsible to decide which people can access certain physical or digital spaces. DAC is not as restrictive as other systems. An individual can control who should access the system or location. A DAC system can be hacked easily as it is one single person who owns controlling over the system. The system is easily exposed to malware attack without the owner having no idea about it.
Mandatory Access Control (MAC)–
Mandatory Access control systems are used in organizations like military institutions. MAC allows the user to set the access rules. But, the owner cannot allow a specific individual to enter the space who does not have the access rights.
Role-Based Access Control (RBAC)–
Role-based Access Control is being used in household complexes and business premises. This system is strictly based on the privileges and rights an individual has been assigned. For eg. a security management team will have access to their designated virtual or physical system. You do not need to inform them about which systems they should not access. The access rules are based on specific job roles in this system.
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